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Token como Derechos de Valor & Ofertas de Token y Centros de Comercio Descentralizados: Un análisis del derecho civil de valores y la legislación de su-pervisión de valores desde la perspectiva de Liechtenstein, con especial referencia a los actos pertinentes de la Unión
Token als Wertrechte und Token Offerings und dezentrale Handelsplätze: Eine wertpapierzivilrechtliche und wertpapieraufsichtsrechtliche Analyse aus der Perspektive Liechtensteins unter besonderer Berücksichtigung einschlägiger Unionsrechtsakte
Les Tokens comme Droits de Valeur & Offres de Tokens et Centres Commerciaux Décentralisés: Une analyse du droit civil des valeurs mobilières et du droit de la surveillance des valeurs mobilières du point de vue du Liech-tenstein, avec une référence particulière aux actes pertinents de l'Union
Ebook series7 titles

Bank- und Finanzmarktrecht Liechtenstein

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About this series

Questo libro è stato tradotto dal tedesco all'italiano attraverso l'intelligenza artificiale (traduzione automatica).

This book was translated from German into Italian by means of artificial intelligence (machine translation).

This academic paper deals with both civil (securities) law and regulatory (securities) law aspects. Thus, a summary of the property law is provided, which deals with the classification of tokens under Liechtenstein law.
Furthermore, dematerialized securities, which have been known to the Liechtenstein legal system for almost 100 years, will be dis-cussed.
The civil and corporate law focus is on Liechtenstein, while the Swiss corporate law and the general civil law of Austrian law are also taken into account.
The supervisory part of the work is clearly in the focus of Union law, but also takes into account national specialties of Liechtenstein, Austria and Germany in addition to European legal acts.
Thus, tokens and token-based business models are also examined in the light of European legal acts such as MiFIR, MiFID II, CRR, CRD IV, CSDR, EMIR, AIFMD, UCITSD, E-Money Directive II, PSD II, MAD/MAR, Prospectus Regulation, 5th AML Directive and other regulations, directives, as well as implementing regulations and delegated regulations. A special focus is placed on crypto exchanges and decentralized trading places (DEX). In addition, a focus will be placed on consumer law in terms of tokens and distance selling contracts, taking into account the Consumer Rights Directives. In this context, tokens as data or software and thus as digital content and consequently merchandise are also dealt with in more detail and the parallels to tokens as tokens with intrinsic value or virtual currencies in contrast to fiat money are shown.
Furthermore, the author aims at explaining deposit business, e-money transactions and financial instruments as communicating vessels in contrast to virtual currencies. Although this is primarily a legal work, technical aspects of Distributed Ledger Technologies, such as the blockchain, smart contracts, agoric computing, self-sovereign identity, etc. - as far as this is necessary for the legal assessment - are also explained in more detail.
The present discussion is to be understood as scientific work with practical relevance for advice in connection with blockchain based business models.
LanguageItaliano
Release dateJun 16, 2020
Token como Derechos de Valor & Ofertas de Token y Centros de Comercio Descentralizados: Un análisis del derecho civil de valores y la legislación de su-pervisión de valores desde la perspectiva de Liechtenstein, con especial referencia a los actos pertinentes de la Unión
Token als Wertrechte und Token Offerings und dezentrale Handelsplätze: Eine wertpapierzivilrechtliche und wertpapieraufsichtsrechtliche Analyse aus der Perspektive Liechtensteins unter besonderer Berücksichtigung einschlägiger Unionsrechtsakte
Les Tokens comme Droits de Valeur & Offres de Tokens et Centres Commerciaux Décentralisés: Une analyse du droit civil des valeurs mobilières et du droit de la surveillance des valeurs mobilières du point de vue du Liech-tenstein, avec une référence particulière aux actes pertinents de l'Union

Titles in the series (7)

  • Les Tokens comme Droits de Valeur & Offres de Tokens et Centres Commerciaux Décentralisés: Une analyse du droit civil des valeurs mobilières et du droit de la surveillance des valeurs mobilières du point de vue du Liech-tenstein, avec une référence particulière aux actes pertinents de l'Union

    1

    Les Tokens comme Droits de Valeur & Offres de Tokens et Centres Commerciaux Décentralisés: Une analyse du droit civil des valeurs mobilières et du droit de la surveillance des valeurs mobilières du point de vue du Liech-tenstein, avec une référence particulière aux actes pertinents de l'Union
    Les Tokens comme Droits de Valeur & Offres de Tokens et Centres Commerciaux Décentralisés: Une analyse du droit civil des valeurs mobilières et du droit de la surveillance des valeurs mobilières du point de vue du Liech-tenstein, avec une référence particulière aux actes pertinents de l'Union

    Ce livre a été traduit de l'allemand vers le français au moyen de l'intelligence artificielle (traduction automatique). This book was translated from German into French by means of artificial intelligence (machine translation). This academic paper deals with both civil (securities) law and regulatory (securities) law aspects. Thus, a summary of the property law is provided, which deals with the classification of tokens under Liechtenstein law. Furthermore, dematerialized securities, which have been known to the Liechtenstein legal system for almost 100 years, will be dis-cussed. The civil and corporate law focus is on Liechtenstein, while the Swiss corporate law and the general civil law of Austrian law are also taken into account. The supervisory part of the work is clearly in the focus of Union law, but also takes into account national specialties of Liechtenstein, Austria and Germany in addition to European legal acts. Thus, tokens and token-based business models are also examined in the light of European legal acts such as MiFIR, MiFID II, CRR, CRD IV, CSDR, EMIR, AIFMD, UCITSD, E-Money Directive II, PSD II, MAD/MAR, Prospectus Regulation, 5th AML Directive and other regulations, directives, as well as implementing regulations and delegated regulations. A special focus is placed on crypto exchanges and decentralized trading places (DEX). In addition, a focus will be placed on consumer law in terms of tokens and distance selling contracts, taking into account the Consumer Rights Directives. In this context, tokens as data or software and thus as digital content and consequently merchandise are also dealt with in more detail and the parallels to tokens as tokens with intrinsic value or virtual currencies in contrast to fiat money are shown. Furthermore, the author aims at explaining deposit business, e-money transactions and financial instruments as communicating vessels in contrast to virtual currencies. Although this is primarily a legal work, technical aspects of Distributed Ledger Technologies, such as the blockchain, smart contracts, agoric computing, self-sovereign identity, etc. - as far as this is necessary for the legal assessment - are also explained in more detail. The present discussion is to be understood as scientific work with practical relevance for advice in connection with blockchain based business models.

  • Token como Derechos de Valor & Ofertas de Token y Centros de Comercio Descentralizados: Un análisis del derecho civil de valores y la legislación de su-pervisión de valores desde la perspectiva de Liechtenstein, con especial referencia a los actos pertinentes de la Unión

    1

    Token como Derechos de Valor & Ofertas de Token y Centros de Comercio Descentralizados: Un análisis del derecho civil de valores y la legislación de su-pervisión de valores desde la perspectiva de Liechtenstein, con especial referencia a los actos pertinentes de la Unión
    Token como Derechos de Valor & Ofertas de Token y Centros de Comercio Descentralizados: Un análisis del derecho civil de valores y la legislación de su-pervisión de valores desde la perspectiva de Liechtenstein, con especial referencia a los actos pertinentes de la Unión

    Este libro fue traducido del alemán al español por medio de la inteligencia artificial (traducción automática). This book was translated from German into Spanish by means of artificial intelligence (machine translation). This academic paper deals with both civil (securities) law and regulatory (securities) law aspects. Thus, a summary of the property law is provided, which deals with the classification of tokens under Liechtenstein law. Furthermore, dematerialized securities, which have been known to the Liechtenstein legal system for almost 100 years, will be dis-cussed. The civil and corporate law focus is on Liechtenstein, while the Swiss corporate law and the general civil law of Austrian law are also taken into account. The supervisory part of the work is clearly in the focus of Union law, but also takes into account national specialties of Liechtenstein, Austria and Germany in addition to European legal acts. Thus, tokens and token-based business models are also examined in the light of European legal acts such as MiFIR, MiFID II, CRR, CRD IV, CSDR, EMIR, AIFMD, UCITSD, E-Money Directive II, PSD II, MAD/MAR, Prospectus Regulation, 5th AML Directive and other regulations, directives, as well as implementing regulations and delegated regulations. A special focus is placed on crypto exchanges and decentralized trading places (DEX). In addition, a focus will be placed on consumer law in terms of tokens and distance selling contracts, taking into account the Consumer Rights Directives. In this context, tokens as data or software and thus as digital content and consequently merchandise are also dealt with in more detail and the parallels to tokens as tokens with intrinsic value or virtual currencies in contrast to fiat money are shown. Furthermore, the author aims at explaining deposit business, e-money transactions and financial instruments as communicating vessels in contrast to virtual currencies. Although this is primarily a legal work, technical aspects of Distributed Ledger Technologies, such as the blockchain, smart contracts, agoric computing, self-sovereign identity, etc. - as far as this is necessary for the legal assessment - are also explained in more detail. The present discussion is to be understood as scientific work with practical relevance for advice in connection with blockchain based business models.

  • Token als Wertrechte und Token Offerings und dezentrale Handelsplätze: Eine wertpapierzivilrechtliche und wertpapieraufsichtsrechtliche Analyse aus der Perspektive Liechtensteins unter besonderer Berücksichtigung einschlägiger Unionsrechtsakte

    1

    Token als Wertrechte und Token Offerings und dezentrale Handelsplätze: Eine wertpapierzivilrechtliche und wertpapieraufsichtsrechtliche Analyse aus der Perspektive Liechtensteins unter besonderer Berücksichtigung einschlägiger Unionsrechtsakte
    Token als Wertrechte und Token Offerings und dezentrale Handelsplätze: Eine wertpapierzivilrechtliche und wertpapieraufsichtsrechtliche Analyse aus der Perspektive Liechtensteins unter besonderer Berücksichtigung einschlägiger Unionsrechtsakte

    Das vorliegende Werk behandelt (wertpapier-)zivilrechtliche wie (wertpapier-)aufsichtsrechtliche Aspekte von Token gemäss liechtensteinischem Recht unter Berücksichtigung von relevanten Unionsrechtsakten. Ferner wird auf entmaterialisierte Wertpapiere eingegangen, welche der liechtensteinischen Rechtsordnung annähernd 100 Jahre bekannt sind. Es wird dabei die Rechtslage betreffend Wertpapiere und Wertrechte vor Inkrafttreten des "Blockchain-Gesetzes" (TVTG) skizziert und werden in der Folge Wertrechte nach TVTG (Abstraktionsprinzip) und Wertrechte nach PGR idF LGBl 2019/304 (Kausalprinzip) im Detail behandelt. Der zivil-, wie gesellschaftsrechtliche Fokus liegt auf Liechtenstein, während auch die gesellschaftsrechtliche Rezeptionsgrundlage der Schweiz und die allgemeine zivilrechtliche Rezeption des österreichischen Rechtes Berücksichtigung finden. Der aufsichtsrechtliche Teil der Arbeit steht klar im Fokus des Unionsrechtes, berücksichtigt neben den europäischen Rechtsakten aber auch nationale Besonderheiten Liechtensteins, Österreichs und Deutschlands. Token und tokenbasierte Geschäftsmodelle werden auch unter Berücksichtigung von Unionsrechtsakten wie MiFIR, MiFID II, CRR, CRD IV, CSDR, EMIR, AIFMD, UCITSD, E-Geld-RL II, PSD II, MAD/MAR, Prospekt-VO, 5. GW-RL und weiteren Verordnungen, Richtlinien, sowie Durchführungsverordnungen und delegierten Rechtsakten beleuchtet. Ein besonderer Fokus wird hierbei auf Krypto-Börsen sowie dezentrale Handelsplätze (DEX) gelegt. Zudem wird ein Fokus auf Verbraucherrecht iZm Token und Fernabsatzverträgen unter Berücksichtigung der VRRL und der Klausel-RL gelegt. In diesem Zusammenhang wird auch auf Token als Daten bzw Software und sohin als digitale Inhalte und folglich Handelswaren näher eingegangen und werden die Parallelen zu Token als Wertmarke mit intrinsischem Wert bzw virtuellen Währungen in Abgrenzung zu Fiatgeld aufgezeigt. Weiters werden Einlagengeschäft, E-Geldgeschäft und Finanzinstrumente als kommunizierende Gefässe in Abgrenzung zu virtuellen Währungen verständlich erklärt. Dabei erfolgt zwar vorrangig eine juristische Auseinandersetzung, jedoch werden auch technische Aspekte der Distributed Ledger Technologies, wie der Blockchain als dezentrale Datenbank, Token & Coins, Smart Contracts, Agoric Computing, Self-Sovereign-Identity, etc - soweit dies für die rechtliche Beurteilung erforderlich ist - näher gebracht. Zielgruppen: Juristen, Behörden & Gerichte, Wissenschafter, sonstige Interessenten.

  • Token como Direitos de Valor & Token Offerings e Centros Comerciais Descentralizados: Uma análise do direito civil e do direito de supervisão dos valores mobiliários na perspectiva do Liechtenstein, com espe-cial referência aos actos relevantes da União

    1

    Token como Direitos de Valor & Token Offerings e Centros Comerciais Descentralizados: Uma análise do direito civil e do direito de supervisão dos valores mobiliários na perspectiva do Liechtenstein, com espe-cial referência aos actos relevantes da União
    Token como Direitos de Valor & Token Offerings e Centros Comerciais Descentralizados: Uma análise do direito civil e do direito de supervisão dos valores mobiliários na perspectiva do Liechtenstein, com espe-cial referência aos actos relevantes da União

    Este livro foi traduzido do alemão para o português por meio de inteligência artificial (tradução automática). This book was translated from German into Portuguese by means of artificial intelligence (machine translation). This academic paper deals with both civil (securities) law and regulatory (securities) law aspects. Thus, a summary of the property law is provided, which deals with the classification of tokens under Liechtenstein law. Furthermore, dematerialized securities, which have been known to the Liechtenstein legal system for almost 100 years, will be dis-cussed. The civil and corporate law focus is on Liechtenstein, while the Swiss corporate law and the general civil law of Austrian law are also taken into account. The supervisory part of the work is clearly in the focus of Union law, but also takes into account national specialties of Liechtenstein, Austria and Germany in addition to European legal acts. Thus, tokens and token-based business models are also examined in the light of European legal acts such as MiFIR, MiFID II, CRR, CRD IV, CSDR, EMIR, AIFMD, UCITSD, E-Money Directive II, PSD II, MAD/MAR, Prospectus Regulation, 5th AML Directive and other regulations, directives, as well as implementing regulations and delegated regulations. A special focus is placed on crypto exchanges and decentralized trading places (DEX). In addition, a focus will be placed on consumer law in terms of tokens and distance selling contracts, taking into account the Consumer Rights Directives. In this context, tokens as data or software and thus as digital content and consequently merchandise are also dealt with in more detail and the parallels to tokens as tokens with intrinsic value or virtual currencies in contrast to fiat money are shown. Furthermore, the author aims at explaining deposit business, e-money transactions and financial instruments as communicating vessels in contrast to virtual currencies. Although this is primarily a legal work, technical aspects of Distributed Ledger Technologies, such as the blockchain, smart contracts, agoric computing, self-sovereign identity, etc. - as far as this is necessary for the legal assessment - are also explained in more detail. The present discussion is to be understood as scientific work with practical relevance for advice in connection with blockchain based business models.

  • Token as value rights & Token offerings and decentralized trading venues: An analysis of securities civil law and securities supervision law from the perspective of Liechtenstein, with particular reference to relevant Union acts

    1

    Token as value rights & Token offerings and decentralized trading venues: An analysis of securities civil law and securities supervision law from the perspective of Liechtenstein, with particular reference to relevant Union acts
    Token as value rights & Token offerings and decentralized trading venues: An analysis of securities civil law and securities supervision law from the perspective of Liechtenstein, with particular reference to relevant Union acts

    This book was translated from German into English by means of artificial intelligence (machine translation). This academic paper deals with both civil (securities) law and regulatory (securities) law aspects. Thus, a summary of the property law is provided, which deals with the classification of tokens under Liechtenstein law. Furthermore, dematerialized securities, which have been known to the Liechtenstein legal system for almost 100 years, will be dis-cussed. The civil and corporate law focus is on Liechtenstein, while the Swiss corporate law and the general civil law of Austrian law are also taken into account. The supervisory part of the work is clearly in the focus of Union law, but also takes into account national specialties of Liechtenstein, Austria and Germany in addition to European legal acts. Thus, tokens and token-based business models are also examined in the light of European legal acts such as MiFIR, MiFID II, CRR, CRD IV, CSDR, EMIR, AIFMD, UCITSD, E-Money Directive II, PSD II, MAD/MAR, Prospectus Regulation, 5th AML Directive and other regulations, directives, as well as implementing regulations and delegated regulations. A special focus is placed on crypto exchanges and decentralized trading places (DEX). In addition, a focus will be placed on consumer law in terms of tokens and distance selling contracts, taking into account the Consumer Rights Directives. In this context, tokens as data or software and thus as digital content and consequently merchandise are also dealt with in more detail and the parallels to tokens as tokens with intrinsic value or virtual currencies in contrast to fiat money are shown. Furthermore, the author aims at explaining deposit business, e-money transactions and financial instruments as communicating vessels in contrast to virtual currencies. Although this is primarily a legal work, technical aspects of Distributed Ledger Technologies, such as the blockchain, smart contracts, agoric computing, self-sovereign identity, etc. - as far as this is necessary for the legal assessment - are also explained in more detail. The present discussion is to be understood as scientific work with practical relevance for advice in connection with blockchain based business models.

  • Token als Waarderechten & Tokenanbiedingen en Gedecentraliseerde Handelscentra: Een analyse van het burgerlijk effectenrecht en het recht inzake effectentoezicht vanuit het oogpunt van Liechtenstein, met bi-jzondere aandacht voor de desbetreffende besluiten van de Unie.

    1

    Token als Waarderechten & Tokenanbiedingen en Gedecentraliseerde Handelscentra: Een analyse van het burgerlijk effectenrecht en het recht inzake effectentoezicht vanuit het oogpunt van Liechtenstein, met bi-jzondere aandacht voor de desbetreffende besluiten van de Unie.
    Token als Waarderechten & Tokenanbiedingen en Gedecentraliseerde Handelscentra: Een analyse van het burgerlijk effectenrecht en het recht inzake effectentoezicht vanuit het oogpunt van Liechtenstein, met bi-jzondere aandacht voor de desbetreffende besluiten van de Unie.

    Dit boek is door middel van kunstmatige intelligentie uit het uits naar het Nederlands vertaald (machinevertaling). This book was translated from German into Dutch by means of artificial intelligence (machine translation). This academic paper deals with both civil (securities) law and regulatory (securities) law aspects. Thus, a summary of the property law is provided, which deals with the classification of tokens under Liechtenstein law. Furthermore, dematerialized securities, which have been known to the Liechtenstein legal system for almost 100 years, will be dis-cussed. The civil and corporate law focus is on Liechtenstein, while the Swiss corporate law and the general civil law of Austrian law are also taken into account. The supervisory part of the work is clearly in the focus of Union law, but also takes into account national specialties of Liechtenstein, Austria and Germany in addition to European legal acts. Thus, tokens and token-based business models are also examined in the light of European legal acts such as MiFIR, MiFID II, CRR, CRD IV, CSDR, EMIR, AIFMD, UCITSD, E-Money Directive II, PSD II, MAD/MAR, Prospectus Regulation, 5th AML Directive and other regulations, directives, as well as implementing regulations and delegated regulations. A special focus is placed on crypto exchanges and decentralized trading places (DEX). In addition, a focus will be placed on consumer law in terms of tokens and distance selling contracts, taking into account the Consumer Rights Directives. In this context, tokens as data or software and thus as digital content and consequently merchandise are also dealt with in more detail and the parallels to tokens as tokens with intrinsic value or virtual currencies in contrast to fiat money are shown. Furthermore, the author aims at explaining deposit business, e-money transactions and financial instruments as communicating vessels in contrast to virtual currencies. Although this is primarily a legal work, technical aspects of Distributed Ledger Technologies, such as the blockchain, smart contracts, agoric computing, self-sovereign identity, etc. - as far as this is necessary for the legal assessment - are also explained in more detail. The present discussion is to be understood as scientific work with practical relevance for advice in connection with blockchain based business models.

  • Token come Diritti di Valore & Offerte a Token e Centri Commerciali Decentralizzati: Un'analisi del diritto civile dei titoli e del diritto di vigilanza sui titoli dal punto di vista del Liechtenstein, con particolare rifer-imento ai pertinenti atti dell'Unione europea

    1

    Token come Diritti di Valore & Offerte a Token e Centri Commerciali Decentralizzati: Un'analisi del diritto civile dei titoli e del diritto di vigilanza sui titoli dal punto di vista del Liechtenstein, con particolare rifer-imento ai pertinenti atti dell'Unione europea
    Token come Diritti di Valore & Offerte a Token e Centri Commerciali Decentralizzati: Un'analisi del diritto civile dei titoli e del diritto di vigilanza sui titoli dal punto di vista del Liechtenstein, con particolare rifer-imento ai pertinenti atti dell'Unione europea

    Questo libro è stato tradotto dal tedesco all'italiano attraverso l'intelligenza artificiale (traduzione automatica). This book was translated from German into Italian by means of artificial intelligence (machine translation). This academic paper deals with both civil (securities) law and regulatory (securities) law aspects. Thus, a summary of the property law is provided, which deals with the classification of tokens under Liechtenstein law. Furthermore, dematerialized securities, which have been known to the Liechtenstein legal system for almost 100 years, will be dis-cussed. The civil and corporate law focus is on Liechtenstein, while the Swiss corporate law and the general civil law of Austrian law are also taken into account. The supervisory part of the work is clearly in the focus of Union law, but also takes into account national specialties of Liechtenstein, Austria and Germany in addition to European legal acts. Thus, tokens and token-based business models are also examined in the light of European legal acts such as MiFIR, MiFID II, CRR, CRD IV, CSDR, EMIR, AIFMD, UCITSD, E-Money Directive II, PSD II, MAD/MAR, Prospectus Regulation, 5th AML Directive and other regulations, directives, as well as implementing regulations and delegated regulations. A special focus is placed on crypto exchanges and decentralized trading places (DEX). In addition, a focus will be placed on consumer law in terms of tokens and distance selling contracts, taking into account the Consumer Rights Directives. In this context, tokens as data or software and thus as digital content and consequently merchandise are also dealt with in more detail and the parallels to tokens as tokens with intrinsic value or virtual currencies in contrast to fiat money are shown. Furthermore, the author aims at explaining deposit business, e-money transactions and financial instruments as communicating vessels in contrast to virtual currencies. Although this is primarily a legal work, technical aspects of Distributed Ledger Technologies, such as the blockchain, smart contracts, agoric computing, self-sovereign identity, etc. - as far as this is necessary for the legal assessment - are also explained in more detail. The present discussion is to be understood as scientific work with practical relevance for advice in connection with blockchain based business models.

Author

Josef Bergt

Prof. Mag. Dr. Josef Bergt LL.M. LL.M. ist Rechtsanwalt in Liechtenstein und spezialisiert im liechtensteinischen und europäischen Gesellschafts-, Banken- und Finanzmarktrecht und kann auf eine umfassende Expertise in Zusammenhang mit regulatorischen Rahmenbedingungen von Finanzmärkten, insbesondere betreffend Sharing-Economy-Modelle und disruptiven Technologien, verweisen. Neben seiner Tätigkeit als Autor referiert er auch bei internationalen Veranstaltungen und an Universitäten.

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