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Inorganic binders: for mould and core production in the foundry
Inorganic binders: for mould and core production in the foundry
Inorganic binders: for mould and core production in the foundry
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Inorganic binders: for mould and core production in the foundry

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In addition to clay minerals, which have been used for decades as a binder for the compaction moulding process (with bentonite moulding materials), there are also inorganic chemically curing binder systems od long-standing tradition in the foundry. Since the forties of the last century cement has has been used for mould and core production. The core production was then revolutionized in the fifties by the water glass CO2 process. Since the Fifties, theclassical inorganic systems have superseded the organic binder systems, with notable increase around the 1970s and 80s. Due to a constantly increasing environmental awareness in the foundry industry, which has been increasingly underpinned by government calls for an improvement in casting production, the almost forgotten inorganic binder systems had a renaissance at the turn of the century. There is some misleading and even conflicting information surrounding the current state of the application, as well as its achievable property level. Therefore, this book should be attempted as complete as possible. It is aiming to provide answers to the question of what can afford inorganic binder systems at the present. On the other hand this book should open questions or problems to be solved for a further increasing of proportions in mould and core production in the coming years.
LanguageDeutsch
Release dateDec 3, 2019
ISBN9783794908943
Inorganic binders: for mould and core production in the foundry
Author

Hartmut Polzin

Dr. Eng. habil. Hartmut Polzin is working on the Foundry Institute of TU Bergakademie Freiberg. His research focuses among others on the area of inorganic binder systems. After studying foundryment in Freiberg he received his doctorate in 1999 with a dissertation on microwave hardening of water-glass bonded foundry moulding materials to Dr. Eng. After several years working in a foundry, he returned to the Foundry Institute and is responsible for teaching and research in the field of moulding materials and moulding processes since 2008.

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    Inorganic binders - Hartmut Polzin

    Dr. Eng. habil. Hartmut Polzin is working on the Foundry Institute of TU Bergakademie Freiberg. His research focuses among others on the area of inorganic binder systems. After studying foundryment in Freiberg he received his doctorate in 1999 with a dissertation on microwave hardening of water-glass bonded foundry moulding materials to Dr. Eng.

    After several years working in a foundry, he returned to the Foundry Institute and is responsible for teaching and research in the field of moulding materials and moulding processes since 2008.

    Foreword

    In addition to clay minerals, which have been used for decades as a binder for the compaction moulding process (with bentonite moulding materials), there are also inorganic chemically curing binder systems with a long tradition in the foundry. Since the Forties of the last century cement has been used for mould and core production. The core production was then revolutionized in the Fifties by the water glass CO2 process. Due to the short cycle times this cold box process became very popular. Introduced into the practice in the Fifties, the classical inorganic systems superseded the organic binder systems increasingly around the 70s and 80s.

    The main reasons for this development were the higher performance, the high process reliability, and improved technological properties. Due to a constantly increasing environmental awareness in the foundry industry, which has been increasingly underpinned by government calls for an improvement in casting production forgotten inorganic binder systems had a renaissance at the turn of the century.

    In addition to two conferences on the subject in 2002 in Wuppertal and 2005 in Hannover, interested experts at GIFA 2003 were presented a series of inorganic binder systems. Entirely new at this exhibition were the two salt binder systems Hydrobond and Laempe-Kuhs. The second group of the presented binder systems were the silicate-based products. This group of binder systems were based mainly on silicate binder components belonging to the classic water glass binder. To compensate the well-known disadvantages of water glass binder, the systems typically operate with additives and adjuvants, contained ether in the binder or added as a liquid or powder component in the moulding material preparation.

    The initiated trend towards the increased use of inorganic binder systems and its produced moulding mixtures is not yet to be questioned and needs to be further pursued in the coming years. There is some misleading and conflicting information about the current state of the application as well as its achievable property level.

    Therefore, this book should be attempted as complete as possible. It is aiming to provide answers to the question of what can afford inorganic binder systems at the present. On the other hand this book should open questions or problems to be solved for a further increase of proportions in the mould and core production over the coming years.

    Without the support of a number of people this book would not have been possible. I want to thank all colleagues who have supported me through the provision of image and text material. Many of the results presented here were obtained by students at the Foundry-Institute of TU Bergakademie Freiberg through diligent work in various research papers. My thanks at this point to Christoph Birnbaum, Sebastian Marx, Madlen Nicklisch, Marcel Nürnberg, Ronny Reuther, Axel Wezel and Martin Wrase. I would also like to thank Frank Gleißner, whose support was tireless and reliable when designing or editing images and graphics.

    When talking about inorganic binder systems, I would very much like to remember to Professor Eckart Flemming (1929-2004), who worked his whole life as a researcher on the water glass moulding process and would meet the current development of „the inorganic" with great joy. To him I am obliged to great thanks and if this book dedicates to him, hence.

    Hartmut Polzin

    Freiberg, April 2012

    1 The Beginnings of the Application of Inorganic Binder Systems

    Inorganic binder systems such as loam or clay were principally used in foundries since their beginnings around 5000 years ago. But, if one looks at the group of chemical curing systems, the application period is significantly limited. Probably the oldest chemically (inorganic) curing and moulding material binder system is cement. The first field tests were performed with cement according to Roll ¹ at the turn of the century in 1900. The hydraulic cement binder however, gained practical importance only through the work of Durand. In Germany Goedel was the first to deal with the process. Application of the process was mainly used in the production of castings made of cast steel. An early work, which deals with the basics of the cement moulding material process is found in ².

    Another group of inorganic binder systems that have long been used in the foundry industry are the silicic acid and silicate binder solutions. Silica sols are solutions of silicon dioxide in water and applied as a binder in the lost wax or investment casting, and in a number of so-called precision casting procedures. Hinz deals with the basics of these hardening by drying binder systems in ³. Alkali silicate solutions, better known as water glass solutions, have been used in foundries since around 1950. Petrzela introduced the water glass process to the public with a patent in 1947 ⁴ ⁵. In this way the first ‘cold box’ process was available and revolutionized core production in particular, bringing significantly shorter curing times. Working almost in parallel, Ljass‘s work also led to the development of gas hardening in the water glass process ⁶ ⁷. This process is still used today though in relatively small scale for the production of cores in all areas of cast material.

    After the water glass CO2 process had provided a significant advance in productivity and process reliability of casting production, a number of other curing technologies for the water glass binder in the cold self-curing process were developed in the subsequent period. During the water glass powder curing process ⁸ ⁹ dicalcium and tricalcium silicates were used as a main component in Portland cement as a powder hardener. The process represented a further development of the water glass-silicide process (Nishiyama process) that was used with powdered ferrosilicon as a hardener ¹⁰ ¹¹. A further variant of the process was the self-curing water glass clay process in which a plastic moulding material is solidified by a combination of compression and chemical curing. By the addition of bentonite or clay, the moulding material produced may be separated immediately after the compaction of the core box.

    The most important form of self-curing technology with regard to water glass binder was, and still is, the water glass ester process ¹² ¹³. This was used to achieve the solidification reactions in raw moulding material organic esters on the basis of acetic acid or propylene carbonate, for example. The process is applied today for the production of moulding materials and cores mainly in the area of non-ferrous castings manufacturing in addition to the cement moulding material process which is the only significant cold self-curing inorganic moulding process.

    In the course of development, other inorganic components were tested as moulding material plastic binders but these will not be explored in this discussion at this point. Noteworthy however, is gypsum which is used even today in a number of precision casting processes as a binder.


    1 Roll, F., Handbuch der Gießerei-Technik, Band I, 1. Teil, Springer Verlag Berlin/Göttingen/Heidelberg, 1959

    2 Winnacker-Weingartner, Chemische Technologie Band II, S. 311, Hanser-Verlag München 1950

    3 Hinz, W., Silikate, Verlag für Bauwesen Berlin, 1963

    4 Petrzela, L., CSR-Patent Nr. 81931 Wasserglas-CO2-Verfahren, angemeldet 12.12.1947

    5 Petrzela, L., Freiberger Forschungsheft B 11, 1956

    6 Ljass, A. M., Litejnoe proizvodstvo in Deutsch, 1961

    7 Ljass, A. M., Vortrag 28. Internationaler Gießereikongress Wien 1961

    8 Gettwert, G., Richarz, F., Neue Ergebnisse über das Kohlensäure-Erstarrungsverfahren, GieSSerei 59, 1972, Nr. 22, S. 649–654

    9 Gerstmann, O., Hertel, R. Seidemann, R., GISAZEM – ein umweltfreundliches, schnell selbsthärtendes Bindersystem, Gießereitechnik 23, 1977, Nr. 4, S. 101–103

    10 Nishyama, T., Nach dem Nishiyama-Verfahren hergestellte exothermisch selbsthärtende Formen,

    GieSSerei 51, 1964, Nr. 7, S. 167–172

    11 Klose, G. R., Fließfähige selbsthärtende Formstoffe, GieSSerei 59, 1972, Nr. 5, S. 139–146

    12 Anwenderinformationen Gisacodur-Verfahren, Leipzig, 1978

    13 MacDonald, R. M., Foundry World, 1979, Nr. 1

    2 The Development and State of the Application up to the Year 2000

    The period around the turn of the millennium marked, more or less, the lowest point in the application of chemi cally curing inorganic material moulding systems. Because priorities of productivity, property level, and efficiency rapidly came into the foreground, the foundries began to focus primarily on the application of organic binder systems for mould and core production. The main differences here were between the iron and steel foundries, and the nonferrous foundries.

    While iron and most of the steel foundries, at least in the serial casting area, relied almost exclusively on the familiar organic binders, (the main reason being better productivity, higher process reliability, and better mechanical properties) from around the year 2000 there were a number of aluminium foundries and copper foundries that had worked either partially or completely with inorganic binder systems.

    The reasons for this are many. Considering fir